The Syrian Civil War, also called Syria Crisis, has its roots in the revolutionary wave of protests and demonstrations to overthrow monarchs and anarchists and establish democracy in Middle East countries also popularly known as the Arab Spring. Since the beginning of revolution in 2010 the Arab Spring has resulted in overthrow of rulers in four Arab countries till now while civil uprisings have erupted in many more including Syria. However the Syrian revolutionary groups, though has an objective to overthrow the monarch Bashar-al-Assad, have hardly any more in common in opinions or objectives, with speculations of violence rising between the major Arab ethnic communities. If the world is to be believed the war in Syria has long lost its focus and has been reduced to frustrated attacks on opposite groups. By now reportedly the death toll of the war has reached 120,000 in addition to the thousands of protestors who have been imprisoned and being tortured. Since no solution on domestic or international level could have been reached, the toll from the war is expected to rise further.
Below are the ten major reasons which have forced a war in Syria:
10. Terror Groups’ Support
Terror Groups’ Support
As per reports, almost 15-20% of the rebels belong to extremists groups. About 12% of rebels are part of groups linked to Al-Qaeda while 18% belong to Ahrar ash-Sham and 9% belong to Suqour al-Sham Brigade. Involvement of Battle hardened forces fighting against government has made the situation worse in Syria spoiling any possibility of non-violent protests from either side. Some rebel commanders have accused foreign jihadists of stealing the revolution, robbing Syrian factories and displaying religious intolerance.
9. Civil Bombing and Prosecution
Civil Bombings and Prosecution
The killings of innocent people through bombing, massacres and unjustified prosecutions by both, government and rebel groups, have made the situation of Syria a never ending conflict. The rebel groups have escorted to extreme violence and thus have stopped caring even for the innocent civilians from which it was formed in the first place. Government on the other hand, in order to curb the revolution, have declared and supported decisions and actions which have let to starving of thousands of innocent Syrians and destruction of most major cities.
8. Foreign Intervention
Syria war is no longer just a domestic issue with intervention from a number of war resources rich countries supporting both sides. It has been reported that Syrian government has been receiving military support from Russia and Iran while Qatar and Saudi Arabia have been transferring weapons to the rebel groups. The opposite end support by major foreign powers has also proved any UN attempts to stop the war fruitless. While Iraq and China support the Syrian regime along with Russia and Iran, the United States and European Union are in favor of the rebellion group thus proving any UN attempt of negotiations a failure.
7. Lack of Human Rights
Lack of Human Rights
The state of human rights in Syria had always received harsh criticism from global organizations. The Syrian has failed to make Syria a democratic state with all other parties banned leaving the country with only party without free and equal voting rights. Also the present rules allow the government and military to arrest and prosecute any person without proper trials. Right of free expression and association has always been strictly controlled by the government and any human rights activists is arrested and harassed. Also there is widespread discrimination against women and ethnic minorities.
6. Military Actions
The Syrian Army is controlled by the Syrian government and is deployed presently to curb the protests and arrest rebels and non-adhering civilians. The revolution is said to be turned into the crisis due to the government unethical and unrequired military disposition on the rebel groups while the opposition forces consisted mainly of civilians with no proper military training and powers. The government’s outrageous approach to the demonstrations resulted in the war taking a never ending violent form.
The Syrian government has proved to be highly ineffective and non-competitive in improving and boasting the Syrian economic conditions. The country faces a very high youth unemployment rate and the standard of living has deteriorated over the years following steep price rise. The constantly depraving economic conditions and increasing unemployment have forced people to revolt against the government.
4. Income Inequality
The rebel has been the strongest in Syria’s poor areas and predominantly Sunni areas. The revolution found its foundations in two of the poorest cities and rural areas of Syria which were hit by droughts in 2011. No steps all this while had been taken on the part of the government to boast the economy in these locations or to consider income re-distributions. The government and military tortures have been majorly on poor people as well. Syrian government has been lacking in introduction and implication of any significant public policies thus inviting dissatisfaction from the economic backward sections. Socioeconomic inequality increased as the government launched free trade policies which benefited only a minority of the country’s population involved in service sector.
3. Sectarian Conflicts
Though it has been regularly denied on part of both opposing groups yet questions have been raised on the hidden objectives of the revolution as being a Sectarian conflict between two major Arab communities Shia and Sunni. Some religious communities tend to be more supportive of the regime than others, fueling suspicion and religious intolerance in many parts of the country. The UN claims that the conflict has a strong religious motive with Shia groups fighting mainly against Sunni rebel groups. Such speculations have raised the concerns in adjoining Arab countries with fear of sectarian wars in other parts of the Arab world.
2. Assad Government
Very few in Syria can be anymore called government sympathizers with protest rising in every corners of the city against the military and the monarchical government. In a revolution to overthrow the government in 1971, Assad became the president of Syria till his death in 2000. His throne was overtaken by his son and heir Bashar Al-Assad. Though Syria has in a place a parliamentary system, it only a one party nation with most powers lying in the hands of the president and his top ministers while no effective decentralization or redressal system against the government is in place. Bashar Al-Assad initially inspired hopes for democratic and state reforms which however ended with arrest and imprisonment of ten leading activists who had demanded democratic elections.
1. Arab Spring
The crisis is said of begun with the Arabian wave to overthrow Monarchs and establish democracy in the countries of Middle East. So far Tunisia, Egypt, Libya and Yemen have achieved in establishing democracy in the country while protests have occurred in almost every Arab country. The Arab Spring has been majorly instigated due to high dissatisfaction towards the local government and deteriorating economies with rising corruption and inequality in income distribution and for raising education and medical facilities levels. Syrian protest is also inspired by the cumulative protest of the Arab world.